Freudianism or the philosophy of Sigmund Freud
Humanity experienced three significant blows to its collective ego. The first such blow was struck by the Polish astronomer Nikolai Copernicus (1473-1543), who proved that the Earth is not the center of the universe. The second revelation was in the nineteenth century the teaching of Charles Darwin, who showed that man is not unique, different from all living species and therefore can not claim a special place in the world. The third blow was made by Sigmund Freud himself, declaring that we are not able to fully control our own lives with the help of reason. But … is this so bad?
One of the most controversial and controversial scientists of the 21st century, Sigmund Freud is known to be the founder of modern doctrines of psychology. It was he who developed the concept of psychoanalysis, gave the origins of Freudianism (Freudian philosophy) and advanced the idea of the power of sex over all aspects of the human psyche. I tried to identify all the basic theories and ideas proposed by Freud, with whom, in my opinion, an erudite person should be familiar.
General vision of the build of human psychics
Freud believed that the personality consists of 3 components: «it», «I» and «superego.» «It» is unconscious instincts, a certain basis that we have inherited from our ancestors. The main expression of it is the impulse of procreation, desire. However, the natural «it» is suppressed by the rational «I». «I» is your consciousness, understanding of reality. Also a strict judge of your actions is the «super-I», that is, part of the psyche that is formed under the pressure of society, its norms.
Freud was one of the first who put forward theories touching on this topic. In short, the unconscious is any processes in the brain that occur without our participation. However, Freud was convinced that there is more. The unconscious directly affects our behavior, and the unconscious itself is controlled by emotions suppressed in youth. He firmly believed that human actions are the result of unconscious processes. Therefore, «free» choice is not so free, as it seems to us.
According to Freud, a person’s life can be divided into psychosexual stages. And the first stage in a person’s life is oral. This is due to the fact that infants receive food by sucking their breasts, and during this period the area of the mouth is most closely connected with the satisfaction of biological needs, and with pleasant sensations. Moreover, he believed that the desire of a woman to smoke is a manifestation of the desire for oral sex, that is, the desire to recreate the pleasure of early childhood, alternating methods. Freud himself was an avid smoker and smoked 20 cigars a day! When his students pointed it out to him, he replied: «Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.»
A VIEW ON THE CULTURE
Freud argued that culture, which manifests itself in moral ideals, the ideals of literature, religion and art, is based on the suppression of instincts, and therefore causes suffering. However, culture was in his understanding of the inevitable part of civilization.
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One of the most important theories of the psychologist is the Oedipus complex theory. In short, its essence is that any child has unequal feelings for both parents, unconsciously wanting to «eliminate» the parent of his gender and «possess» the parent of the opposite sex.
During his studies, Sigmund Freud began to experiment with the use of cocaine. He accepted it himself, gave it to all his friends. It was he who introduced cocaine into medical practice. Freud was full of enthusiasm for this drug, which, he claimed, relieved him of depression and helped fight chronic digestive disorders. At that time, Freud was convinced that it was in cocaine that he found some miraculous means by which any illness can be cured. Later, he admitted his mistake, but he himself used it, as is known, for another 10 years.
We explore the infinite expanses of the world around us, study other planets and sink to the bottom of the oceans, but the biggest mystery for us is still ourselves, our mind, psyche, consciousness. Many theories are difficult to accept because of the established ethics of behavior, because of the limits of decent standards. But I believe that, despite the eccentricity and frankness of ideas, and, of course, some errors and inaccuracies, Freud’s philosophy provides the key to understanding the essence of us, people.
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